1. Related Links
This page describes the automatic server discovery schemes provided in NTPv4. There are three automatic server discovery schemes: broadcast, manycast, and server pool; which are described on this page. The broadcast scheme utilizes the ubiquitous broadcast or one-to-many paradigm native to IPv4 and IPv6. The manycast scheme is similar to specifying to broadcast, but the servers listen on a specific address known to the client. The server pool scheme uses DNS to resolve addresses of multiple volunteer servers scattered throughout the world.
All three schemes work in much the same way and might be described as grab-n'-prune. Through one means or another they grab a number of associations either directly or indirectly from the configuration file, order them from best to worst according to the NTP mitigation algorithms, and prune the surplus associations.
4. Association Management
All schemes use an iterated process to discover new preemptable client associations as long as the total number of client associations is less than the maxclock option of the tos command. The maxclock default is 10, but it should be changed in typical configuration to some lower number, usually two greater than the minclock option of the same command.
All schemes use a stratum filter to select just those servers with stratum considered useful. This can avoid large numbers of clients ganging up on a small number of low-stratum servers and avoid servers below or above specified stratum levels. By default, servers of all strata are acceptable; however, the tos command can be used to restrict the acceptable range from the floor option, inclusive, to the ceiling option, exclusive. Potential servers operating at the same stratum as the client will be avoided. Additional filters can be supplied using the methods described on the Authentication Support page.
The pruning process uses a set of unreach counters, one for each association created by the configuration or discovery processes. At each poll interval, the counter is increased by one. If an acceptable packet arrives for a persistent (configured) or ephemeral (broadcast) association, the counter is set to zero. If an acceptable packet arrives for a preemptable (manycast, pool) association and survives the selection and clustering algorithms, the counter is set to zero. If the the counter reaches an arbitrary threshold of 10, the association becomes a candidate for pruning.
The pruning algorithm is very simple. If an ephemeral or preemptable association becomes a candidate for pruning, it is immediately demobilized. If a persistent association becomes a candidate for pruning, it is not demobilized, but its poll interval is set at the maximum. The pruning algorithm design avoids needless discovery/prune cycles for associations that wander in and out of the survivor list, but otherwise have similar characteristics.
Following is a summary of each scheme. Note that reference to option applies to the commands described on the Configuration Options page. See that page for applicability and defaults.
5. Server Pool Scheme
The idea of targeting servers on a random basis to distribute and balance the load is not a new one; however, the NTP Pool Project puts this on steroids. At present, several thousand operators around the globe have volunteered their servers for public access. In general, NTP is a lightweight service and servers used for other purposes don’t mind an additional small load. The trick is to randomize over the population and minimize the load on any one server while retaining the advantages of multiple servers using the NTP mitigation algorithms.
To support this service, custom DNS software is used by pool.ntp.org and its subdomains to discover a random selection of participating (in-country) servers in response to a DNS query. The client receiving this list mobilizes some or all of them, similar to the manycast discovery scheme, and prunes the excess. Cryptographic authentication is not required.
The pool scheme is configured using one or more pool commands with DNS names indicating the pool from which to draw. The pool command can be used more than once; duplicate servers are detected and discarded. In principle, it is possible to use a configuration file containing a single line pool pool.ntp.org. The NTP Pool Project offers instructions on using the pool with the server command, which is suboptimal but works with older versions of ntpd predating the pool command. Use of the server command does a one-time DNS lookup, and uses the IP address returned thereafter. If the server becomes unavailable, the DNS will not be re-resolved. The pool command will use multiple servers that the DNS resolves to, refreshing as required.